1. See, for example, Louis Menand's "The Culture Wars", a review of Richard Bernstein's Dictatorship of Virtue: Multiculturalism and the Battle for America's Future, in The New York Review of Books (October 6, 1994), 16-21.

2. Canada's Undeclared War (Calgary: Detselig Enterprises Ltd., 1991), 2.

3. "The Master's Pieces: On Canon Formation and the African-American Tradition," in The Politics of Liberal Education, edited by Darryl J. Gless and Barbara Herrnstein Smith (Durham and London: Duke University Press, 1992), 95-117, 96.

4. "The Politics of Recognition," in Multiculturalism and " The Politics of Recognition ", edited by Amy Gutmann (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1992), 25-73, 35.

5. Illiberal Education (New York: Free Press, 1991).

6. "The Politics of Recognition," 68-69.

7. "Critical Multiculturalism," Critical Inquiry 18 (1992), 530-555.

8. I have in mind Nancy Fraser's definition of counterpublics as "parallel discursive arenas where members of subordinated social groups invent and circulate counterdiscourses to formulate oppositional interpretations of their identities, interests, and needs." See Fraser's "Rethinking the Public Sphere," in Habermas and the Public Sphere, edited by Craig Calhoun (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1992), 109-142, 123.

9. "The Politics of Recognition," 50.

10. Working Papers and Proceedings of the Center for Psychosocial Studies 49 (1992), 1-21 , 5.

11. For an influential discussion of the concept of a small nation, see Miroslav Hroch's The Social Preconditions of National Revival in Europe: A Comparative Analysis of the Social Composition of Patriotic Groups among the Smaller European Nations (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985). Hroch chooses to limit the term 'small nation' to "those [nations] which were in subjection to a ruling nation for such a long period that the relation of subjection took on a structural character for both parties" (9). This definition is, in my mind, overly restrictive since it effaces the important role played by the sheer size of a country and its population, as well as by the reach of its language.

12. The Rambo/Rimbaud substitution is evoked by Graff in the context of an analysis of objections to multicultural reform. See his "Teach the Conflicts," in The Politics of Liberal Education, 57-73, 68. The Bugs Bunny and Shakespeare example is from Roger Kimball's Tenured Radicals: How Politics Has Corrupted Our Higher Education (New York: Harper & Row, 1990), xii.

13. For a penetrating discussion of key differences between marked and unmarked culture, see Greg Urban's "Two Faces of Culture."

14. Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Loose Canons: Notes on the Culture Wars (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992), xv.

15. "The Master's Pieces," 107.

16. Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, "Pedagogy in the Context of an Antihomophobic Project," in The Politics of Liberal Education, 145-162, 146.

17. Fraser, "Rethinking the Public Sphere," 124.

18. See, for example, his Nations and Nationalism (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1983).

19. See also Greg Urban's discussion of alpha culture in "Two Faces of Culture."

20. Nations and Nationalism, 31, 29.

21. Nations and Nationalism, 33-34.

22. Nations and Nationalism, 28.

23. Nations and Nationalism, 3.

24. "Citizenship and National Identity: Some Reflections on the Future of Europe," in Theorizing Citizenship, edited by R. Beiner (Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 1995), 255-283.

25. Cited by Stanley Fish in "The Common Touch, or, One Size Fits All", in The Politics of Liberal Education, 241-266, 244

26. Cited by Gates in Loose Canons, xv.

27. See Thomas J. Scheff's "Toward a Sociological Model of Consensus," American Sociological Review 32 (1967), 32-46.

28. Cultural Literacy (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987).

29. "The Common Touch," 247.

30. "Hirsch, Literacy, and the "National Culture," in The Politics of Liberal Education, 75-94, 79.

31. See his article by that title in The Politics of Liberal Education, 57-73. See also "Taking Cover in Coverage," Profession 86, 41-45; Professing Literature : An Institutional History (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987); "What Should We Be Teaching--When There is No 'We'?" Yale Journal of Criticism 1 (1987), 189-211.

32. "Teach the Conflicts," 58.

33. "Teach the Conflicts," 57.

34. "Taking Cover in Coverage," 42.

35. "Taking Cover in Coverage," 43.

36. "Teach the Conflicts," 68.

37. "Teach the Conflicts," 57.

38. The Strategy of Letters (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993).

39. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society, translated by Thomas Burger with the assistance of Frederick Lawrence (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1991).